London Has Fallen full movie review - Nothing new
Boring and very long. I should have paid to watch the Star Wars again! I think the script was written by 12 year old. I don't have anything else to add, but there is a 1000 word minimum to write a review.
The following explains how the brain processes language by Erik Kendal.
Advances in our understanding of language processing by the brain come from three sources: its acquisition in children, its study in typical individuals using noninvasive brain imaging techniques, and its dissolution in patients suffering brain injury. Studies on infants and children are demonstrating that children, even infants, master the details of language at the phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels very early in development. Infants begin life capable of responding to subtle acoustic distinctions that cue phonetic differences in the world's languages, distinctions that likely capitalize on general auditory perceptual processes. Very rapidly, a powerful learning process causes infants to recognize statistical properties in the language they hear, allowing them to form phonetic categories, find words in the ongoing stream of discourse, and recognize the phrase structure of their native language, all before 10 months of age. Speech production takes a similar course, showing universal patterns early in life, "which show differentiation by about 10 months of age. By the end of the first year, when the infant's first words appear, language learning evolves from universal patterns of speech perception and production to a language-specific pattern. Infant- directed speech ("motherese"), with its enhanced prosodic cues and its exaggerated phonetic units, may assist language learning in the young. Early language learning being documented in experiments on infants and young children is unrelated to external reinforcement of the kind described by Skinner. Nor does it conform to the process described by Chomsky "by which innately provided options are chosen (or maintained) on the basis of experience. Infant language learning involves a more general sensory and cognitive ability that fine tunes the brain and alters both speech perception and production very early. The processing of a native language differs from the processing of a foreign language. Taken together, studies show that highly diverse brain regions are involved in language processing and represent a progressive neural commitment to the features and properties of the native language. These findings, and studies of second language acquisition, suggest new models of the critical or sensitive period for language acquisition. The difficulty in learning a second language later in life appears to be related to experience or expertise, in addition to age of acquisition. Language experience and use commit brain structure to patterns that reflect the primary language so that second language learning is difficult to the degree that it employs a totally different set of phonological and grammatical rules. Behavioral and brain studies of infants and adults who have been systematically exposed to a foreign language are likely to elucidate the nature of the brain's plasticity for language over a lifetime. "Studies of infants who are being raised in bilingual or trilingual homes are likely to answer questions about whether the human brain has limitless potential for language, or whether our ability to acquire multiple languages is constrained. These studies will not only advance our understanding of the neural basis of language but may elucidate general biological principles regarding human learning. At the same time, studies on the nature of language dissolution in aphasia have made great progress since Broca's and Wernicke's seminal discoveries. They have given us a more complete understanding of linguistic processes and an appreciation of the complex ways in which they interconnect with systems for perception, motor control, conceptual knowledge, and intentions. The challenges to elucidating the neural basis of language remain formidable, although several developments offer the hope of continued progress in the near future. "Improvements in structural imaging will allow more precise and consistent delineation of lesions that affect specific features of language ability. Measurement of brain activity in typical subjects will become increasingly important in the future, as both the spatial and temporal resolution of these techniques improve and the experimental paradigms used to study language become more productive. Neurosurgical candidates whose brain functions must be mapped by stimulation during surgery or by recording from implanted electrode grids that remain in place during everyday activities will be an important source of fine-grained information. Nevertheless, the data available from the past decade of research already suggest two important insights, as noted by Greg Hickok and David Poeppel: The recruitment of brain regions in language studies is highly dependent on the tasks used in the experiment, and language reception may be more bilaterally organized than previously appreciated. A promising approach is to relate findings on the developmental time course of human language acquisition, plasticity for second language learning, and studies on language dissolution caused by brain trauma. Are the components of language that are learned earliest?those involving prosodic and phonetic learning in speech perception and production?most resistant to change when learning a second language, and also the least likely to suffer from the effects of trauma to the brain? Future research will address these issues. Understanding the human capacity for language is important for the advancement of fundamental neuroscience and indispensable for the treatment of patients with aphasia, which is one of the most frequent impairments of higher function caused by stroke and head injury (the others are impairments of memory, emotion, and decision making). The astonishing feat of language is too complex to be understood with the tools of any single academic or medical specialty and, as several disciplines come together to study the underlying neural processes, we should expect further significant breakthroughs.